Microscopic image of nanowires
CREDIT: Dr Takao Yasui
Researchers at Nagoya University in Japan have used a new device to identify a key membrane protein in urine that indicates whether the patient has a brain tumor. Their protein could be used to detect brain cancer, avoiding the need for invasive tests, and increasing the likelihood of tumors being detected early enough for surgery.
This research could also have potential implications for detecting other types of cancer. The research was published in ACS Nano.
Although early detection of many types of cancer has contributed to the recent increases in cancer survival rates, the survival rate for brain tumors has remained almost unchanged for over 20 years. Partly this is due to their late detection. Physicians often discover brain tumors only after the onset of neurological symptoms, such as loss of movement or speech, by which time the tumor has reached a considerable size. Detecting the tumor when it is still small, and starting treatment as soon as possible. should help to save lives.
One possible sign that a person has a brain tumor is the presence of tumor-related extracellular vesicles (EVs) in their urine. EVs are nano-sized vesicles involved in a variety of functions, including cell-to-cell communication. Because those found in brain cancer patients have specific types of RNA and membrane proteins, they could be used to detect the presence of cancer and its progression.
Although they are excreted far from the brain, many EVs from cancer cells exist stably and are excreted in the urine without breaking down. Urine testing has many advantages, explains Associate Professor Takao Yasui of Nagoya University Graduate School of Engineering. “Liquid biopsy can be performed using many body fluids, but blood tests are invasive,” he said. “Urine tests are an effective, simple, and non-invasive method because the urine contains many informative biomolecules that can be traced back to identify the disease.”
A research group led by Yasui and Professor Yoshinobu Baba of Nagoya University’s Graduate School of Engineering, in collaboration with Nagoya University’s Institute of Innovation for Future Society and the University of Tokyo, has developed a new analysis platform for brain tumor EVs using nanowires at the bottom of a well plate. Using this device, they identified two specific types of EV membrane proteins, known as CD31/CD63, from urine samples of brain tumor patients. Looking for these tell-tale proteins could enable doctors to identify tumor patients before they develop symptoms.
“Currently, EV isolation and detection methods require more than two instruments and an assay to isolate and then detect EVs,” said Yasui. “The all-in-one nanowire assay can isolate and detect EVs using one simple procedure. In the future, users can run samples through our assay and change the detection part, by selectively modifying it to detect specific membrane proteins or miRNAs inside EVs to detect other types of cancer. Using this platform, we expect to advance the analysis of the expression levels of specific membrane proteins in patients’ urinary EVs, which will enable the early detection of different types of cancer.”
Original Article: A new device can detect brain tumors using urine
More from: Nagoya University
The Latest Updates from Bing News
Go deeper with Bing News on:
- Robotic technology detects lung cancer early and accurately at Mitchell Cancer Institute
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer for men and women in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society. Health professionals say early de ...
- Unlocking Early Detection: How Are Diagnostic Labs Revolutionizing Lung Cancer Testing?
Indian laboratories have matched global advances step by step and play an integral role in partnering with their patient and clinical colleagues to detect, diagnose and help treat. Lung Cancer ...
- Breast milk examination may help in early detection of cancer during pregnancy and postpartum period
Spain: Breast milk (BM) obtained from breast cancer patients carries cell-free tumour DNA (ctDNA), surpassing plasma-based liquid biopsy for molecular profiling and detection of early-stage breast ...
- Can dogs truly detect cancer?
Given the increasing evidence supporting dogs' exceptional olfactory abilities, is it true that they have the capability to detect cancer?
- New method can detect early-stage breast cancer in two minutes, study claims
University of Waterloo researchers are pioneering a method to detect breast cancer in women early enough for them to receive life-saving treatment. The innovative technology aims to be more accurate ...
Go deeper with Bing News on:
Detecting brain cancer
- Robotic procedure detects lung cancer sooner: Seacoast health news
PORTSMOUTH — The Fabulous Find, a distinguished 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization committed to supporting local communities, has selected the David Krempels Brain Injury Center ... to use robotic ...
- Chinese scientists achieve breakthrough in early detection of ‘king cancer’ that killed Steve Jobs
AI scientists and clinical researchers have worked together to develop a new early screening method to detect pancreatic cancer. It could help save thousands of lives every year, with the difficulty ...
- Can a FibroScan detect liver cancer?
FibroScan is a diagnostic test that uses ultrasound to visualize the liver. Detecting cancer is not its main use. However, because the scan evaluates overall liver health, it may provide an ...
- What can speech tell us about brain health?
Spanning topics from singing to AI, UBC’s Integrated Speech Research Laboratory (ISRL) has a diverse set of interests. Most recently, they have been looking at what speech can tell us about our brains ...
- Is AI the Cancer-Fighting Tool We've been Waiting For?
As AI and new imaging tools give researchers vast amounts of data on tumors, they are winning some battles against this complex disease.