The need to first zero in on a blood group can delay blood transfusions in emergency situations, and this in turn can prove fatal. Thus, to speed up the process, a team of scientists from Tokyo University of Science, Japan, has developed a lab-on-a-chip device that can not only tell the blood type within five minutes but allows medical staff to read the results through simple visual inspections.
Blood transfusion, if performed promptly, is a potentially life-saving intervention for someone losing a lot of blood. However, blood comes in several types, some of which are incompatible with others. Transfusing an incompatible blood type can severely harm a patient. It is, therefore, critical for medical staff to know a patient’s blood type before they perform a transfusion.
There are four major blood types?O, A, B, and AB. These types differ based on the presence or absence of structures called A antigens and B antigens on the surfaces of red blood cells. Blood can be further divided into positive and negative types based on the presence or absence of D antigens on red blood cells. Medical professionals usually tell a patient’s blood type with tests involving antibodies against the A and B antigens. When antibodies recognize the corresponding antigens, they bind to them, causing the blood cells to clump together and the blood to coagulate. Thus, specific antigen-antibody combinations tell us what the blood type of a blood sample is.
Yet, while the concept sounds straightforward, the equipment and techniques required are often very specialized. Tests, therefore, are non-portable, have high personnel cost, and can take over half an hour to yield results. This can prove problematic in several types of emergency situations.
Aiming to solve these problems, a team of scientists at Japan’s Tokyo University of Science, led by Dr Ken Yamamoto and Dr Masahiro Motosuke, has developed a fully automated chip that can quickly and reliably determine a patient’s blood type. In the words of Dr Motosuke, he and his colleagues “have developed a compact and rapid blood-typing chip which also dilutes whole blood automatically.”
The chip contains a micro-sized “laboratory” with various compartments through which the blood sample travels in sequence and is processed until results are obtained. To start the process, a user simply inserts a small amount of blood, presses a button, and waits for the result. Inside the chip, the blood is first diluted with a saline solution and air bubbles are introduced to promote mixing. The diluted blood is transported to a homogenizer where further mixing, driven by more intensely moving bubbles, yields a uniform solution. Portions of the homogenized blood solution are introduced into four different detector chambers. Two chambers each contain reagents that can detect either A antigens or B antigens. A third chamber contains reagents that detect D antigens and a fourth chamber contains only saline solution, with no reagent, and serves as a negative control chamber in which the user should not observe any results. Antigen-antibody reaction will cause blood to coagulate, and by looking at which chambers have coagulated blood, the user can tell the blood type and whether the blood is positive or negative.
Further, the user does not require specialized optical equipment to read the results. The design of the detector chambers allows the easy identification of coagulated blood with the naked eye. The device is also highly sensitive and can even detect weak coagulation.
During testing, the research team screened blood samples from 10 donors and obtained accurate results for all 10 samples. The time needed to determine a single sample’s blood type was only five minutes.
Reflecting on the potential benefits of his team’s invention, Dr Motosuke remarks, “The advancement of simple and quick blood test chip technologies will lead to the simplification of medical care in emergency situations and will greatly reduce costs and the necessary labor on parts of medical staff.” Given the highly portable nature of the chip, Professor Motosuke also speculates that it could be used during aerial medical transport and in disaster response settings. This is a chip that has the potential to change the way emergency medical support is given.
The Latest Updates from Bing News & Google News
Go deeper with Bing News on:
Identifying blood type
- Europe Blood Filter Market to Grow at a CAGR of 3.8% to reach US$ 1,45,156.91 thousand from 2022 to 2028
The Europe Blood Filter Market Research Report provides insightful data on market status, future forecast, growth opportunity and key players based on a thorough research process. Readers looking to ...
- Measuring BMI in a new way can help identify individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Up to 20 percent of type 2 diabetes patients are of normal weight, and it is important to identify individuals in this group that ... the levels of 108 metabolites associated with diabetes in blood ...
- Combination of drugs for obesity and Type 2 diabetes may be more effective than a single therapy
Canadian and German researchers are teaming up to identify new drug combinations to treat people with obesity and Type 2 diabetes ... They also suppress appetite in order to control blood sugars and ...
- Biochemists Identify How Genome Organization Influences Cell Fate
University of California Riverside-led study identifies how blood stem cells maintain their fate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that specify and maintain the identities of the human body’s ...
- Blood and Fluid Warmer Market: Growth Analysis by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications
product type and application, historical data and forecast to 2026. Understand the structure of the Global Blood and Fluid Warmer Market by identifying the different subsegments. Focuses on key ...
Go deeper with Google Headlines on:
Identifying blood type
Go deeper with Bing News on:
- Lab on Chips Market Share 2022 Trends, Growth Rate Analysis, Industry Demand, Development Plans, Strategies and Top Regions Forecast till 2025
This Lab on Chips Market study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of (2022 to 2025). The report provides supreme data, such ...
- Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe Conference 2022: Rotterdam, Netherlands - June 21-22, 2022
Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2022" conference has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2022 now in its 15th year brings together researchers and ...
- Chip Tester Knows If Your Old Chips Are Working
[Noel’s Retro Lab] has looked at retro chip testers ... The tester is shown detecting a bad DRAM chip. The device can test logic gates, although it failed on some 7438s. We wondered it is ...
- Your Phone Lens Could Soon Give You an Instant Disease Diagnosis, Thanks to This New Device
A new method for the investigation of biological cells has been developed (and it's small enough to fit into a smartphone lens).
- Miniature heart replica could help optimize cardiac disease treatments
A living cardiac pump-on-a-chip could help researchers study how the heart works and investigate new treatments for heart disease ...