Study of vaccine-related Facebook ads reveals ongoing challenges to public health
In a year that has seen the largest measles outbreak in the US in more than two decades, the role of social media in giving a platform to unscientific anti-vaccine messages and organizations has become a flashpoint.
In the first study of public health-related Facebook advertising, newly published in the journal Vaccine, researchers at the University of Maryland, the George Washington University and Johns Hopkins University show that a small group of anti-vaccine ad buyers has successfully leveraged Facebook to reach targeted audiences and that the social media platform’s efforts to improve transparency have actually led to the removal of ads promoting vaccination and communicating scientific findings.
The research calls attention to the threat of social media misinformation as it may contribute to increasing “vaccine hesitancy,” which the World Health Organization ranks among the top threats to global health this year. This increasing reluctance or refusal to vaccinate threatens to reverse the progress made in halting vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, which has seen a 30% increase in cases globally.
The research team, co-led by UMD’s Dr. Sandra C. Quinn, GW’s Dr. David Broniatowski and JHU’s Dr. Mark Dredze, examined more than 500 vaccine-related ads served to Facebook users and archived in Facebook’s Ad Library. This archive, which became available in late 2018, catalogued ad content related to “issues of national importance.” Their findings reveal that the majority of advertisements (54%) which opposed vaccination, were posted by only two groups funded by private individuals, the World Mercury Project and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, and emphasized the purported harms of vaccination.
“The average person might think that this anti-vaccine movement is a grassroots effort led by parents, but what we see on Facebook is that there are a handful of well-connected, powerful people who are responsible for the majority of advertisements. These buyers are more organized than people think,” said Amelia Jamison, a faculty research assistant in the Maryland Center for Health Equity, and the study’s first author.
In contrast, those ads promoting vaccination did not reflect a common or organized theme or funder, and were focused on trying to get people vaccinated against a specific disease in a targeted population. Examples included ads for a local WalMart’s flu vaccine clinic or the Gates Foundation campaign against polio.
Yet, because Facebook categorizes ads about vaccines as “political,” it has led the platform to reject some pro-vaccine messages. “By accepting the framing of vaccine opponents – that vaccination is a political topic, rather than one on which there is widespread public agreement and scientific consensus – Facebook perpetuates the false idea that there is even a debate to be had,” said David Broniatowski, associate professor of engineering management and systems engineering at GW, and principal investigator of the study. “This leads to increased vaccine hesitancy, and ultimately, more epidemics.”
“Worse, these policies actually penalize pro-vaccine content since Facebook requires disclosure of funding sources for ‘political’ ads, but vaccine proponents rarely think of themselves as political. Additionally, vaccine opponents are more organized and more able to make sure that their ads meet these requirements.”
Facebook is a pervasive presence in the lives of many people, meaning its decisions about how to handle vaccine messaging have far-reaching and serious consequences, said Sandra Crouse Quinn, professor and chair of the Department of Family Science at UMD’s School of Public Health, and a principal investigator on the study.
“In today’s social media world, Facebook looms large as a source of information for many, yet their policies have made it more difficult for users to discern what is legitimate, credible vaccine information. This puts public health officials, with limited staff resources for social media campaigns, at a true disadvantage, just when we need to communicate the urgency of vaccines as a means to protect our children and our families,” said Quinn.
The researchers note that the data gathered for this study from Facebook’s Ad Archive was collected in December 2018 and February 2019, before Facebook’s March 2019 announcement of updated advertising policies designed to limit the spread of vaccine-related misinformation. This study provides a baseline to compare how new policy changes may change the reach of ads from anti-vaccine organizations. Those standards, issued in response to the proliferation of anti-vaccination misinformation that coincided with measles outbreaks across the U.S.in early 2019, include that Facebook will block advertisements that include false content about vaccines and disallow advertisers from targeting ads to people “interested in vaccine controversies,” as they were previously able to do.
Yet, the messengers may simply mutate their messages, virus-like, to avoid the tightening standards. “There is a whole set of ads that focus on themes of freedom’ or ‘choice’ and that elude the Facebook rules around vaccine ads,” Broniatowski said.
Jamison says that the research team will continue to study how anti-vaccine arguments are spreading on Facebook and how the company is responding to demands from public health organizations to clean up its act.
“While everyone knows that Facebook can be used to spread misinformation, few people realize the control that advertisers have to target their message,” said Mark Dredze, a John C. Malone associate professor of computer science at Johns Hopkins. “For a few thousand dollars, a small number of anti-vaccine groups can micro-target their message, exploiting vulnerabilities in the health of the public.”
The Latest on: Misinformation
- How A ‘Thanks Pfizer’ Covid Misinformation Meme Went Viralon January 25, 2023 at 2:14 pm
Viral videos falsely claiming the Covid-19 vaccine causes convulsions have inspired widespread mockery and internet jokes.
- 'People don't know who to trust': students learn how to spot misinformationon January 25, 2023 at 1:45 pm
That's why it's so important to learn how to combat misinformation. Grace Beckner took on a big job during her senior year at Trevecca Nazarene University. She is editor-in-chief of the student ...
- Chinese New Year Mass Murder: Media Focused on Misinformation and Left Wing Talking Points, Ignored Important Angleson January 25, 2023 at 10:12 am
The mainstream media once again displayed its glaring bias after the horrific Lunar New Year murders in Monterey Park. But sloppy journalism and loose relationships with facts added on to the ...
- Michelle Obama 'Man' Claims, 'End of Times' Bird Swarm—Misinformation Watchon January 25, 2023 at 9:12 am
Resurfaced false narrative targets former First Lady, "apocalyptic" scene of swarming birds, and video of "rain in one spot"—in today's Misinformation Watch.
- Vaccine Misinformation Spawns 'Pure Blood' Movementon January 24, 2023 at 9:42 pm
Vaccine skeptics blocking transfusions for life-saving surgeries, Facebook groups inciting violence against doctors and a global search for unvaccinated donors -- Covid-19 misinformation has bred a so ...
- How misinformation, confirmation bias is making recovery harder for Club Q survivorson January 24, 2023 at 4:38 pm
In addition to grappling with the events of the November tragedy, a Club Q survivor describes another challenge: hateful comments and misinformation online.
- COVID vaccination rates are low in pregnant people. Experts say misinformation is partly to blame.on January 24, 2023 at 4:16 pm
Experts say that pregnant people are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 vaccine misinformation, which can lead to vaccine hesitancy.
- Managing the ERC misinformation epidemicon January 24, 2023 at 11:15 am
Radio ads from pop-up "shops" and "mills" are looking to profit from the opportunity and confusion surrounding the Employee Retention Credit, but could cost clients.
- The White House is spreading abortion misinformation ... againon January 24, 2023 at 8:50 am
The Biden administration is continuing its coordinated effort to terrify women into supporting abortion access anywhere, anytime, for any reason.
- League of Women Voters of the La Grange Area holding program on misinformationon January 24, 2023 at 8:34 am
The La Grange Area League of Women Voters of the La Grange Area is offering an informative program that will include a webinar providing recent examples of misinformation.
via Bing News
The Latest on: Anti-vaccine messages
- Anti-vaxxers: That’s not Bills’ Damar Hamlin, that’s a body doubleon January 25, 2023 at 11:04 am
Because anti-vaxxers — who are convinced that Hamlin was struck down by a COVID vaccine and not because he suffered a ... showing Hamlin arriving at the team’s locker room and the message “Welcome ...
- New Conspiracy Theory: Damar Hamlin Has A Body Double Hiding ‘Vaccine Injury’on January 25, 2023 at 6:02 am
Did you do a double take when you saw Buffalo Bills safety Damar Hamlin trending again on social media on Tuesady? After all, Hamlin, who had suffered a cardiac arrest during a January 2 Monday Night ...
- These MAGA Republicans believe Silk sent Trump a 'secret' anti-vax message during Diamond’s funeralon January 24, 2023 at 5:09 am
And according to the Daily Beast reporter Zachary Petrizzo, some of Richardson’s MAGA allies believe she was sending Trump a secret anti-vaxxer message. In contrast to all the anti-vaxxers in MAGA ...
- Did Silk Use Diamond’s Funeral for a Secret Message to Trump?on January 24, 2023 at 1:47 am
Many of Donald Trump’s fiercest supporters are convinced MAGA influencer Rochelle “Silk” Richardson—half of the “Diamond and Silk” duo—attempted to send the former president a secret message during ...
- Ron DeSantis is courting anti-vax voters. Florida surgeon general's podcast appearances helpon January 24, 2023 at 12:05 am
As more Republican voters become vaccine skeptics, Florida Surgeon General Joseph Ladapo is becoming a key to Ron DeSantis' presidential ambitions.
- Science vs. religion as Greek priests lead the anti-vax movementon January 22, 2023 at 3:26 pm
However, the message from the Holy Synod wasn't exactly strong ... while doctors close to Syriza have also supported Holy Communion. Last week, thousands of anti-vaccine demonstrators gathered in ...
- Ron DeSantis is courting anti-vax voters. Florida surgeon general's podcast appearances helpon January 20, 2023 at 10:14 am
“But in public health and medicine, we recognize that anti-vaccine messages can be harmful,” he added. Ladapo has been controversial from the beginning Ladapo’s national profile began ...
- Does Peer Pressure Affect Vaccine Acceptance, Hesitancy?on January 18, 2023 at 9:00 am
New data showed that when COVID-19 vaccination is presented as a social norm, vaccine acceptance goes up, underscoring how peer pressure can shape public health messaging.
- Twitter Is a Megaphone for ‘Sudden Death’ Vaccine Conspiracieson January 16, 2023 at 4:00 am
“They didn’t even give him time to go cold. They were straight on it with some vile messages,” Hazell says. Anti-vaccine conspiracy theorists seized upon Gough’s death, reportedly from a ...
- Anti-vaccine misinformation hampers the conversation about genuine vaccine injurieson January 15, 2023 at 4:26 am
If you choose to ignore this message, we'll assume that you are ... in which to carry out research or advocacy, partly because anti-vaccine communities persistently muddy the waters with ...
via Bing News