Almost 500,000 Americans die each year from cardiac arrest, when the heart suddenly stops beating.
People experiencing cardiac arrest will suddenly become unresponsive and either stop breathing or gasp for air, a sign known as agonal breathing. Immediate CPR can double or triple someone’s chance of survival, but that requires a bystander to be present.
Cardiac arrests often occur outside of the hospital and in the privacy of someone’s home. Recent research suggests that one of the most common locations for an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is in a patient’s bedroom, where no one is likely around or awake to respond and provide care.
Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a new tool to monitor people for cardiac arrest while they’re asleep without touching them. A new skill for a smart speaker — like Google Home and Amazon Alexa — or smartphone lets the device detect the gasping sound of agonal breathing and call for help. On average, the proof-of-concept tool, which was developed using real agonal breathing instances captured from 911 calls, detected agonal breathing events 97% of the time from up to 20 feet (or 6 meters) away. The findings are published June 19 in the Nature journal npj Digital Medicine.
“A lot of people have smart speakers in their homes, and these devices have amazing capabilities that we can take advantage of,” said co-corresponding author Shyam Gollakota, an associate professor in the UW’s Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering. “We envision a contactless system that works by continuously and passively monitoring the bedroom for an agonal breathing event, and alerts anyone nearby to come provide CPR. And then if there’s no response, the device can automatically call 911.”
Agonal breathing is present for about 50% of people who experience cardiac arrests, according to 911 call data, and patients who take agonal breaths often have a better chance of surviving.
“This kind of breathing happens when a patient experiences really low oxygen levels,” said co-corresponding author Dr. Jacob Sunshine, an assistant professor of anesthesiology and pain medicine at the UW School of Medicine. “It’s sort of a guttural gasping noise, and its uniqueness makes it a good audio biomarker to use to identify if someone is experiencing a cardiac arrest.”
The researchers gathered sounds of agonal breathing from real 911 calls to Seattle’s Emergency Medical Services. Because cardiac arrest patients are often unconscious, bystanders recorded the agonal breathing sounds by putting their phones up to the patient’s mouth so that the dispatcher could determine whether the patient needed immediate CPR. The team collected 162 calls between 2009 and 2017 and extracted 2.5 seconds of audio at the start of each agonal breath to come up with a total of 236 clips. The team captured the recordings on different smart devices — an Amazon Alexa, an iPhone 5s and a Samsung Galaxy S4 — and used various machine learning techniques to boost the dataset to 7,316 positive clips.
“We played these examples at different distances to simulate what it would sound like if it the patient was at different places in the bedroom,” said first author Justin Chan, a doctoral student in the Allen School. “We also added different interfering sounds such as sounds of cats and dogs, cars honking, air conditioning, things that you might normally hear in a home.”
For the negative dataset, the team used 83 hours of audio data collected during sleep studies, yielding 7,305 sound samples. These clips contained typical sounds that people make in their sleep, such as snoring or obstructive sleep apnea.
From these datasets, the team used machine learning to create a tool that could detect agonal breathing 97% of the time when the smart device was placed up to 6 meters away from a speaker generating the sounds.
Next the team tested the algorithm to make sure that it wouldn’t accidentally classify a different type of breathing, like snoring, as agonal breathing.
“We don’t want to alert either emergency services or loved ones unnecessarily, so it’s important that we reduce our false positive rate,” Chan said.
For the sleep lab data, the algorithm incorrectly categorized a breathing sound as agonal breathing 0.14% of the time. The false positive rate was about 0.22% for separate audio clips, in which volunteers had recorded themselves while sleeping in their own homes. But when the team had the tool classify something as agonal breathing only when it detected two distinct events at least 10 seconds apart, the false positive rate fell to 0% for both tests.
The team envisions this algorithm could function like an app, or a skill for Alexa that runs passively on a smart speaker or smartphone while people sleep.
“This could run locally on the processors contained in the Alexa. It’s running in real time, so you don’t need to store anything or send anything to the cloud,” Gollakota said.
“Right now, this is a good proof of concept using the 911 calls in the Seattle metropolitan area,” he said. “But we need to get access to more 911 calls related to cardiac arrest so that we can improve the accuracy of the algorithm further and ensure that it generalizes across a larger population.”
The researchers plan to commercialize this technology through a UW spinout, Sound Life Sciences, Inc.
“Cardiac arrests are a very common way for people to die, and right now many of them can go unwitnessed,” Sunshine said. “Part of what makes this technology so compelling is that it could help us catch more patients in time for them to be treated.”
Dr. Thomas Rea, a professor of general internal medicine at the UW School of Medicine and the medical director of King County Medic One was also a co-author on this paper. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation.
The Latest on: Smart speaker skills
via Google News
The Latest on: Smart speaker skills
- TECNO, Samsung and DXOMARK forecast mobile camera trends 2022 at a Counterpoint webinaron November 26, 2021 at 2:38 pm
TECNO, Samsung Electronics and DXOMARK forecast interesting future mobile camera trends for the year 2022 at a Counterpoint webinar.
- The Best Home Depot and Lowe’s Black Friday Deals 2021on November 26, 2021 at 12:54 pm
Black Friday home improvement deals are here. Shop Lowe’s and Home Depot Black Friday deals on tools, gear, and more.
- These must-have gadgets are all 20 percent off right now for Black Fridayon November 26, 2021 at 7:57 am
From drones and device chargers to home entertainment, here are 20 gadgets and gizmos that are on sale before Black Friday..
- 12 Amazon Black Friday deals you need to know about todayon November 26, 2021 at 7:41 am
Right now is the best time to find some fantastic Amazon Black Friday deals, including some of the lowest prices of the year. The sky’s the limit here. There’s everything on offer, from Black Friday ...
- Amazon Echo Dot 3rd Gen and Dot 4th Gen both £21 off, but which is the best Black Friday speaker deal?on November 26, 2021 at 4:52 am
If you're looking for an affordable smart speaker this Black Friday, Amazon has you covered. It has lopped £21 off the price of both the Echo Dot 4th Gen and its predecessor, the Echo Dot 3rd Gen.
- Black Friday Apple deal: you can save on the HomePod Mini speakeron November 25, 2021 at 11:00 am
Apple deals are rare beasts indeed – usually not even Black Friday can tempt retailers to slash prices on devices made by the Californian firm. Here's the exception. John Lewis and Argos have cut the ...
- Best smart home gadget deals for Black Friday: Google Nest, Amazon Echo and moreon November 25, 2021 at 7:50 am
Black Friday has evolved over the years. The US-import has grown to become the single biggest shopping event in the calendar where bargain hunters everywhere await the Cyber weekend for their big ...
- You can upgrade your car with Amazon Alexa for £29 TODAY – here’s howon November 25, 2021 at 12:22 am
AMAZON has slashed the price of its Echo Auto smart speaker for Black Friday 2021. The mega-saving on Amazon’s popular car gadget brings the price down from £49.99 to £29.99. * We may earn ...
- ABU DHABI SMART CITY SUMMIT SECOND EDITION KICKS-OFFon November 23, 2021 at 12:43 pm
The second edition of the Abu Dhabi Smart City Summit, the largest event of its kind in the region in the field of smart city develo ...
- Amazon Echo Dot just hit $19.99 in Black Friday deals, with a free smart bulbon November 20, 2021 at 4:25 am
Smart Speaker: $49.99 $19.99 at Amazon Save $34.99 - This Black Friday deal from Amazon slashes the best-selling Echo Dot to a record-low price of just $18.99 and includes a free Sengled Bluetooth ...
via Bing News