Australian scientists have discovered how the immune system can control melanoma, a mechanism which could be used to enhance cancer treatments.
Published today in Nature, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity (Doherty Institute) and Telethon Kids Institute researchers investigated the role of a particular immune cell, tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells, in controlling melanoma.
TRM cells were able to control the tumour in the mice for the life of the animal, which is likely to equate to decades of protection in humans.
University of Melbourne PhD student, Simone Park from the Doherty Institute, created an imaging model to study TRM cells’ and melanoma in a mouse model.
“Using a special microscope, we could see individual melanoma cells sitting in the skin of the mouse, and could watch the T cells move through the skin, find the melanoma cells and control the growth of those cells,” Ms Park explained.
One of the main issues for cancer patients is that there is always a risk that the tumour can come back years later, after surgery or chemotherapy.
Previous research has shown that small numbers of cancer cells persist in the body after treatment and that the immune system probably keeps the cancer cells under control but this study in mice could study the immune system directly. This is work that could never be done in people.
“I was able to see through moving images that these TRM cells are important for maintaining the control of the tumour cells; if you remove the TRM cells you have a break in that control and the cancer can start to grow back again,” Ms Park said.
“If you could make more of these TRM cells through immunotherapies, or enhance the activity of those that are already there in some way, you could boost anti-tumour immunity.”
Senior author on the paper, University of Melbourne Associate Professor Thomas Gebhardt, Laboratory Head at the Doherty Institute, said an increase of TRM cells has already been associated with better outcomes in cancer patients, but the way they work to suppress tumours has remained unknown.
“The principal of cutting-edge immunotherapies currently in clinical practise is that they generate a T-cell response. But if we can hone in on one type of T-cell – the TRM cells specifically, we could have an even bigger impact on stopping cancers from coming back,” Associate Professor Gebhardt said.
“We now have a much better understanding of which T-cells are important in controlling skin cancers and how those cells are working but there is still much more work to do to make these cells work even better,” Associate Professor Gebhardt said.
The Latest on: Melanoma
via Google News
The Latest on: Melanoma
- AI and Dermatologists Similarly Judge Melanoma Thicknesson July 27, 2022 at 8:18 am
Both readers and artificial intelligence predict melanoma thickness with fair to moderate accuracy using dermoscopy images, according to a study published online July 16 in the Journal of the European ...
- DecisionDx®-Melanoma Ordered More Than 100,000 Times for Patients Diagnosed with Cutaneous Melanomaon July 25, 2022 at 4:02 am
(Nasdaq: CSTL), a company improving health through innovative tests that guide patient care, today announced a significant milestone for the Company’s DecisionDx®-Melanoma gene expression profile test ...
- Dr Vernon Sondak on BRAF Mutations in Metastatic Melanomaon July 22, 2022 at 11:15 am
In this interview, Vernon Sondak, MD, the chair of the Department of Cutaneous Oncology at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute in Florida, explains the latest approach to treating ...
- Pediatric, Adolescent Melanoma Uptick Seen in Finlandon July 21, 2022 at 2:34 pm
Although melanoma incidence has been reported in Europe overall for the past several decades, specific numbers on the cancer’s incidence in Finland, as well as disease trends, have remained unknown.
- President Joe Biden Has Cancer? Here's What Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Ison July 20, 2022 at 9:14 pm
Joe Biden had several non-melanoma skin cancers removed before he was sworn in as president, according to a White House report from November 2021.
- Researchers create nanoparticle-vaccine combination to target melanomaon July 20, 2022 at 11:28 am
Cancers in humans have all sorts of ways to survive and thrive: Cells and tumors alike engage in devious means to deflect, deceive, and evade detection by our bodies' immune systems.
- Melanoma thickness equally hard for algorithms and dermatologists to judgeon July 20, 2022 at 11:28 am
Assessing the thickness of melanoma is difficult, whether done by an experienced dermatologist or a well-trained machine-learning algorithm. A study from the University of Gothenburg shows that the ...
- Dermatologist argues it's a myth that sunscreen prevents melanoma in people of coloron July 20, 2022 at 10:43 am
Melanoma is a potentially deadly form of skin cancer that effects people of every racial and ethnic group. The risk factor most closely linked to developing melanoma is exposure to ultraviolet, or UV, ...
- It’s a myth that sunscreen prevents melanoma in people of color – a dermatologist explainson July 20, 2022 at 5:21 am
While sunscreen has the potential to reduce skin cancer for light-skinned people, it has never been shown to do the same for Black people. Yet that distinction is lacking in public health messaging.
via Bing News