When the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced, the bad bacteria form a biofilm (aka plaque), which can cause cavities, and if left untreated over time, can lead to cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases like diabetes and bacterial pneumonia.
A team of researchers from the University of Illinois has recently devised a practical nanotechnology-based method for detecting and treating the harmful bacteria that cause plaque and lead to tooth decay and other detrimental conditions.
Oral plaque is invisible to the eye so dentists currently visualize it with disclosing agents, which they administer to patients in the form of a dissolvable tablet or brush-on swab. While useful in helping patients see the extent of their plaque, these methods are unable to identify the difference between good and bad bacteria.
“Presently in the clinic, detection of dental plaque is highly subjective and only depends on the dentist’s visual evaluation,” said Bioengineering Associate Professor Dipanjan Pan, head of the research team. “We have demonstrated for the first time that early detection of dental plaque in the clinic is possible using the regular intraoral X-ray machine which can seek out harmful bacteria populations.”
In order to accomplish this, Fatemeh Ostadhossein, a Bioengineering graduate student in Pan’s group, developed a plaque detection probe that works in conjunction with common X-ray technology and which is capable of finding specific harmful bacteria known as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in a complex biofilm network. Additionally, they also demonstrated that by tweaking the chemical composition of the probe, it can be used to target and destroy the S. mutans bacteria.
The probe is comprised of nanoparticles made of hafnium oxide (HfO2), a non-toxic metal that is currently under clinical trial for internal use in humans. In their study, the team demonstrated the efficacy of the probe to identify biochemical markers present at the surface of the bacterial biofilm and simultaneously destroy S. mutans. They conducted their study on Sprague Dawley rats.
In practice, Pan envisions a dentist applying the probe on the patient’s teeth and using the X-ray machine to accurately visualize the extent of the biofilm plaque. If the plaque is deemed severe, then the dentist would follow up with the administering of the therapeutic HfO2 nanoparticles in the form of a dental paste.
In their study, the team compared the therapeutic ability of their nanoparticles with Chlorhexidine, a chemical currently used by dentists to eradicate biofilm. “Our HfO2nanoparticles are far more efficient at killing the bacteria and reducing the biofilm burden both in cell cultures of bacteria and in [infected] rats,” said Ostadhossein, noting that their new technology is also much safer than conventional treatment.
The nanoparticles’ therapeutic effect is due, said Pan, to their unique surface chemistry, which provides a latch and kill mechanism. “This mechanism sets our work apart from previously pursued nanoparticle-based approaches where the medicinal effect comes from anti-biotics encapsulated in the particles,” said Pan, also a faculty member of the Carle Illinois College of Medicine and the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology. “This is good because our approach avoids anti-biotic resistance issues and it’s safe and highly scalable, making it well-suited for eventual clinical translation.”
The Latest on: Oral plaque
via Google News
The Latest on: Oral plaque
- Esophageal Cancer Patients Show Abundance of Oral Pathogens, Says Studyon January 24, 2021 at 1:46 am
In esophageal cancer patients, oral pathogens are more prevalent and could be used as a novel diagnostic tool, said researchers.
- This Is What Happens to Your Body When You Stop Flossingon January 20, 2021 at 2:01 pm
Below experts explain what happens to your body when you stop flossing, the importance of flossing, and how to floss properly. "Throughout the day, a sticky coating of bacteria called plaque naturally ...
- Soligenix Announces Investor Webcast Event: U.S. Commercialization of SGX301 in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomaon January 19, 2021 at 10:04 pm
(Nasdaq: SNGX) (Soligenix or the Company), a late-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing products to treat rare diseases where there is an unmet medical need, ...
- Tooth or consequences: Even during a pandemic, avoiding the dentist can be bad for your oral healthon January 19, 2021 at 12:10 pm
Poor oral health is associated with numerous chronic diseases, including heart disease and diabetes. These problems pose an immediate health risk and require urgent care. Yet, less urgent dental ...
- The global dental cement market is projected to record a CAGR of 5.39% during the forecast period, 2021-2028on January 19, 2021 at 5:58 am
Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "GLOBAL DENTAL CEMENT MARKET FORECAST 2021-2028" - The dental cavity is becoming a common problem among the world population. According to the WHO ...
- Certain oral pathogens are more prevalent in esophageal cancer patientson January 16, 2021 at 12:27 pm
Researchers led by Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) find that certain oral pathogens are more prevalent in esophageal cancer patients, and could be used as a novel diagnostic tool. Tokyo, ...
- Reviewed: Oral-B’s iO Series 7 electric toothbrushon January 14, 2021 at 4:04 pm
The iO Series 7 is one of the latest smart electric toothbrushes from Oral-B, and one of the most expensive ever. Which? tested it to see if it’s any good.
- Esophageal cancer patients show abundance of oral pathogenson January 14, 2021 at 7:49 am
It is increasingly clear that the trillions of bacteria that make themselves at home in and on the human body are more than just casual observers along for the ride. Gut bacteria in particular have ...
- Oral-B iO™ Puts the Power in Consumers’ Handson January 13, 2021 at 7:28 am
B’s Virtual Experience at 2021 Consumer Electronics Show Puts the Power to Control Health in Consumers’ Hands with the Oral-B iO™ ...
via Bing News