On the list of dreaded medical tests, a prostate biopsy probably ranks fairly high. The common procedure requires sticking a needle into the prostate gland to remove tissue for assessment. Thousands of men who undergo the uncomfortable procedure, prompted by a positive PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test, ultimately don’t require cancer treatment. Today, scientists report progress toward minimizing unnecessary biopsies: They have identified the molecules likely responsible for the scent of prostate cancer, which could be detected by chemically “sniffing” urine.
The researchers will present their results today at the 253rd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ACS, the world’s largest scientific society, is holding the meeting here through Thursday. It features more than 14,000 presentations on a wide range of science topics.
“The idea for this project started with a study published in 2014 showing that trained canines could detect prostate cancer with greater than 97 percent accuracy,” says Mangilal Agarwal, Ph.D., the project’s principal investigator. His team had already been working on a sensor to sniff hypoglycemia on a person’s breath as dogs have also been shown to do. When the prostate cancer study appeared in the Journal of Urology, Agarwal’s lab set out to determine what molecules the dogs might be sensing.
“If dogs can smell prostate cancer, we should be able to, too,” says Amanda Siegel, Ph.D., who is presenting the work at the meeting. Both Agarwal and Siegel are at the Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center.
Prostate cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the United States. In 2016, more than 180,000 new cases were diagnosed, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. Early detection has been critical to saving the lives of many men with prostate cancer. But diagnosing the disease can be fraught with challenges.
The screening test that doctors use now to determine whether to perform a biopsy assesses PSA levels in a blood sample. The prostate gland normally produces this protein in small amounts. Increased levels, however, can indicate many different conditions besides cancer, including prostate infection. As a result, the test is widely recognized as flawed and often leads to unnecessary biopsies.
“Currently, about 60 percent of men who get a biopsy to test for prostate cancer don’t need to get one,” Siegel says. “We hope our research will help doctors and patients make better-informed decisions about whether to have a biopsy, and to avoid unwarranted procedures.”
To determine which molecules wafting from urine could indicate prostate cancer in a patient, the IUPUI and VA team collected urine samples from 100 men undergoing prostate biopsies. To avoid issues that similar studies have had with sample degradation, Agarwal’s team developed a pre-processing step — adding sodium chloride and neutralizing the pH — to ensure the samples would remain intact during the analysis. Then, they used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the volatile organic compounds floating in the “headspace” above the urine samples. With this method, the researchers pinpointed a small set of molecules that showed up in 90 percent of the samples from patients with prostate cancer but not in samples from those who did not have the disease.
Next, the team plans to conduct large-scale tests at multiple health centers to validate their findings. They have also submitted a proposal for funding to confirm the molecular signature they identified by collaborating with a local dog trainer and comparing their technique’s results to those obtained with a canine nose. Depending on the outcome of these projects, Siegel and Agarwal say their test could become available to patients and doctors within the next few years. In the short-term, urine samples would have to be sent to a lab for analysis, but the researchers say their ultimate goal is to design a sensor that can yield results in a doctor’s office.
The Latest on: Prostate cancer
via Google News
The Latest on: Prostate cancer
- Late Redmond Co. founder's cancer battle moves daughter to launch supplements brandon October 20, 2021 at 12:15 pm
Partially inspired by her father Mark Redmond, who co-founded Waukesha construction firm The Redmond Co. and died of cancer in 2005, Kristina Hall and her husband, Brian Hall, started nutrition ...
- An Evolving Relationship Between Medical Oncologists and Genetic Counselors in Prostate Canceron October 20, 2021 at 9:00 am
Gong, MD, gives his perspective on a review article published in ONCOLOGY about the necessary relationship between medical oncologists and genetic counselors to help treat patients with prostate ...
- Kidney transplant offers similar survival in patients with ESKD vs ESKD, prostate canceron October 20, 2021 at 7:37 am
Among patients with end-stage kidney disease, researchers found the same degree of survival benefit from kidney transplant for those with and those without prostate cancer, noting the cancer was ...
- Lightpoint Medical to Present Positive Clinical Trial Data for SENSEI Miniature Gamma Probe in Prostate Cancer Surgeryon October 20, 2021 at 1:00 am
Lightpoint Medical, a leading medical device company developing and marketing innovative technologies for intra-operative cancer detection, announced clinical trial results today to support the use of ...
- Doctor recommends prostate cancer screenings for men over 50, and earlier for men at higher riskon October 19, 2021 at 7:39 pm
The American Cancer Society's estimates for prostate cancer in the United States for 2021 are about 248,530 new cases of prostate cancer, and about 34,130 deaths from prostate cancer.
- Targeted prostate cancer screening could benefit men with inherited cancer syndromeon October 19, 2021 at 3:30 pm
Men who inherit an increased risk of cancer through "Lynch syndrome" could benefit from regular PSA testing from age 40 to detect early signs of prostate cancer, researchers believe.
- PSMA-PET imaging may miss small pelvic nodal metastases in men with prostate canceron October 19, 2021 at 1:23 pm
"Clinicians taking care of patients with high-risk prostate cancer being assessed for prostatectomy can use a positive [PSMA] PET scan as a true positive, whereas a negative scan cannot be used to ...
- MRIs become important tools in diagnosing prostate canceron October 19, 2021 at 9:42 am
Significant advances are being made in the treatment of prostate cancer. That’s the second most common form of cancer in men, second only to skin cancer. And although 34,000 men will die from prostate ...
- Diagnosing Prostate Cancer: Significant advancements being madeon October 19, 2021 at 9:31 am
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, behind skin cancer. It is also the second leading cancer cause of death in men behind lung cancer. It’s important that men of a certain age be ...
via Bing News