Mice tumor free and protected from metastases after treatment
The shells of a common plant virus, inhaled into a lung tumor or injected into ovarian, colon or breast tumors, not only triggered the immune system in mice to wipe out the tumors, but provided systemic protection against metastases, researchers from Case Western Reserve University and Dartmouth University report.
The scientists tested a 100-year-old idea called in-situ vaccination. The idea is to put something inside a tumor and disrupt the environment that suppresses the immune system, thus allowing the natural defense system to attack the malignancy.
That something–the hard coating of cowpea mosaic virus–caused no detectible side effects, which are a common problem with traditional therapies and some immunotherapies.
The team’s research is published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
“The cowpea virus-based nanoparticles act like a switch that turns on the immune system to recognize and fight against the tumor – as well as to remember it,” said Nicole Steinmetz, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Case Western Reserve, appointed by the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine.
“The particles are shockingly potent,” said Steven Fiering, professor of microbiology and immunology at Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine. “They’re easy to make and don’t need to carry antigens, drugs or other immunostimmulatory agents on their surface or inside.”
The professors studied the nanoparticles with Dartmouth’s Pat Lizotte, a molecular and cellular biology PhD student; Mee Rie Sheen, a postdoctoral fellow; and Pakdee Rojanasopondist, an undergraduate student; and Case Western Reserve’s Amy Wen, a biomedical engineering PhD student.
Taking another shot
The immune system’s ability to detect and destroy abnormal cells is thought to prevent many cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute. But when tumors start to develop, they can shut down the system, allowing tumors to grow and spread.
To restart immune defenses, the scientists used the tumor itself as if it were the antigen in a vaccine–that is, the target for antibodies produced by the immune system.
The cowpea virus shell, with its infectious components removed, acts as the adjuvant–a substance that triggers and may enhance or prolong antigen-specific immune responses.
The process and results
The researchers first switched on the immune system in mice to attack B16F10 lung melanoma or skin melanoma, leaving the mice tumor-free. When the treated mice were later injected with B16F10 skin melanoma (to re-challenge the cured mice), four out of five mice were soon cancer free and one had a slow-growing tumor.
The nanoparticles proved effective against ovarian, breast and colon tumor models. Most of the tumors deteriorated from the center and collapsed. The systemic response prevented or attacked metastatic disease, which is the deadliest form of cancer.
“You get benefits against disease you don’t even know is there yet,” Fiering said.
“Because everything we do is local, the side effects are limited,” despite the strength and extent of the immune response, Fiering said. No toxicity was found.
Harsh side effects, such as fatigue, pain, flu-like symptoms and more are common with chemo and radiation therapies and with some immunostimulation drugs.
The researchers are now trying to understand how the virus shell stimulates the immune system.
“It’s not cytotoxic, there’s no RNA involved or lipopolysaccharides that may be used as adjuvants, and it’s not simply an irritant,” Steinmetz said. “We see a specific immune response.”
The Latest on: Immune response against cancer
[google_news title=”” keyword=”immune response against cancer” num_posts=”10″ blurb_length=”0″ show_thumb=”left”]
via Google News
The Latest on:Iimmune response against cancer
- New study reveals hidden immune defense against canceron November 28, 2023 at 2:38 pm
Researchers at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center found certain immune cells can still fight cancer even when the cancer cells lack an important protein that the immune system relies on to ...
- Study reveals hidden immune defense against canceron November 28, 2023 at 10:29 am
Researchers at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have found certain immune cells can still fight cancer even when the cancer cells lack an important protein that the immune system relies on ...
- Harnessing The Power Of Gamma-Delta T Cells In Cancer Therapy: IN8bio’s Innovative Approachon November 28, 2023 at 6:55 am
IN8bio's innovative DeltEx platform forms the basis of its extensive pipeline, comprising both preclinical and clinical product candidates. The platform is specifically designed to target cancer cells ...
- Beef and dairy contain a powerful cancer-fighting nutrienton November 24, 2023 at 6:40 am
A nutrient found in beef and dairy products enhances the immune system's response to cancer, according to a new study ...
- A nutrient from red meat and dairy improves the immune response against canceron November 23, 2023 at 4:01 pm
Chemotherapy, for example, one of the most effective cancer treatments, was the byproduct of mustard ... promoting the anti-tumor immune response. In other words, it is a trans fatty acid that is ...
- Eating beef, dairy can boost immune system to fight cancer: Studyon November 23, 2023 at 11:09 am
Turns out eating beef and dairy may bolster your body's immune response against cancer, according to a study. Trans-vaccenic acid (TVA), a long-chain fatty acid found in meat and dairy products from ...
- Surprising Foods Contain Nutrient That Improves Immune Response to Canceron November 22, 2023 at 8:00 am
Patients with higher levels of this nutrient in their blood tended to respond better to the immunotherapy than those with lower levels.
- Nutrient in Beef and Dairy May Improve Immune Cell Responses to Canceron November 22, 2023 at 8:00 am
A fatty acid found in meat and dairy has been found to increase cancer-fighting T-cell activity according to a new study, suggesting trans-vaccenic acid has the potential to be used as a nutritional ...
- Is AI the Cancer-Fighting Tool We've been Waiting For?on November 22, 2023 at 2:00 am
As AI and new imaging tools give researchers vast amounts of data on tumors, they are winning some battles against this complex disease.
- U of A researchers discover the role of gut-derived metabolites in treating colon canceron November 17, 2023 at 1:00 pm
They've found colorectal cancer cells become increasingly sensitive to gut-derived metabolites, which activates T-cells.
via Bing News