Bionic Liver Micro-Organs Explain Off-Target Toxicity of Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Safety evaluation is a critical part of drug and cosmetic development. In recent years there is a growing understanding that animal experiments fail to predict the human response, necessitating the development of alternative models to predict drug toxicity.
The recent tightening of European regulations preventing the cosmetic industry from using animals in research and development, blocks companies like L’Oréal and Estée Lauder from developing new products, bringing massive investment into this field.
The main challenge in replacing animal experiments is that human cells seldom survive more than a few days outside the body. To address this challenge, scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology in Germany partnered to create a liver-on-chip device mimicking human physiology.
“The liver organs we created were less than a millimeter in diameter and survive for more than a month,” said Prof. Yaakov Nahmias, the study’s lead author and Director of the Alexander Grass Center for Bioengineering at the Hebrew University.
While other groups showed similar results, the breakthrough came when the groups added nanotechnology-based sensors to the mix. “We realized that because we are building the organs ourselves, we are not limited to biology, and could introduce electronic and optical sensors to the tissue itself. Essentially we are building bionic organs on a chip,” said Nahmias.
The addition of nanotechnology-based optoelectronic sensors to the living tissues enabled the group to identify a new mechanism of acetaminophen (Tylenol) toxicity.
“Because we placed sensors inside the tissue, we could detect small and fast changes in cellular respiration that nobody else could,” said Nahmias. The authors discovered that acetaminophen blocked respiration, much faster and at a much lower dose than previously believed. The current understanding was that acetaminophen was broken to a toxic compound, called NAPQI, before damaging the cells. As the liver could naturally deactivate NAPQI, damage was thought to occur only at high doses and in cases of diseased or compromised liver function.
The current study, released online in the leading journal Archives of Toxicology, turns 50 years of research on its head. The authors found that acetaminophen itself can stop cellular respiration in minutes, even in the absence of NAPQI, explaining much of the off target effects of the drugs.
“This is a fascinating study,” said Prof. Oren Shibolet, Head of the Liver Unit at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and one of the leading experts on drug-induced liver injury, who was not involved in the original study. “We knew that acetaminophen can cause nephrotoxicity as well as rare but serious skin reactions, but up until now, we didn’t really understand the mechanism of such an effect. This new technology provides exceptional insight into drug toxicity, and could in fact transform current practice.”
The results mark the first discovery of a new toxicity mechanism using the newly emerging human-on-a-chip technology, suggesting that the development of alternative models for animal testing is just around the corner. The global market of this technology is estimated to grow to $17 billion by 2018, showing a double-digit annual growth rate in the last three years.
The Latest on: Bionic organs on a chip
via Google News
The Latest on: Bionic organs on a chip
- Bionic Medical Devices: What's Holding Them Back?on June 13, 2022 at 4:59 pm
As Second Sight and other makers of bionic prostheses work to close the gap between biological organs and limbs and their prosthetic counterparts, they’re forced to clear not only technical hurdles, ...
- The Real System Requirements for Apple’s 2022 Operating Systemson June 9, 2022 at 9:58 am
We include the chip powering each iPhone because some features also require specific chip generations. iPhone 13/mini/Pro/Pro Max 2021 A15 Bionic iPhone 12/mini/Pro/Pro Max 2020 A14 Bionic iPhone ...
- Organ-on-Chip Market Size Worth USD 284.65 Mn By 2027on June 8, 2022 at 4:49 am
Organs-on-chips are commonly utilized in organ repair ... the growing use of heart-on-chip in in-vitro cardiac tissue bionic research, and the growing use of the micro physiological heart-on ...
- Artificial Organ Models 3D-Printed with Lifelike Characteristicson June 7, 2022 at 5:01 pm
“If we could replicate the function of these tissues and organs, we might someday even be able to create ‘bionic organs’ for transplants,” he said. “I call this the ‘Human X’ project. It sounds a bit ...
- Artificial Organs Market size worth $ 28.31 Billion, Globally, by 2028 at 7.56% CAGR: Verified Market Research®on June 1, 2022 at 6:44 am
2021-2028 Artificial Organ And Bionic Implants Market By Product (Artificial Organs,Bionic Implants), By Technology (Electronic, Mechanical), By Method of Fixation (Implantable, Externally Worn ...
- Using 3D Printing to Blend Biology and Electronicson May 25, 2022 at 5:00 pm
“We’re working on a whole range of possibilities, from bionic organs to 3D printed boards with tissue engineering.” McAlpine will present the keynote address, "3D Printing Functional Materials & ...
- CN Bio Appoints Dr Paul Brooks as Chief Business Officeron May 24, 2022 at 2:36 am
CAMBRIDGE, England, May 24, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--CN Bio, a leading Organ-on-a-chip Company (OOC) that designs and manufactures single- and multi-organ microphysiological systems (MPS), today ...
- Bionics Market Growth And Opportunity, End User Type, Top Manufacturers and Outlook 2027 | Emergen Researchon May 16, 2022 at 5:57 am
Rising global geriatric population, increasing incidences of age-related disorders or congenital problems, increasing volumes of organ transplants, and emergence of cutting-edge bionic ...
- Touch Bionics Grip Chips Let Hand Prostheses Think for Themselveson May 14, 2022 at 5:00 pm
has announced new cool technologies that enhance their i-limb ultra revolution bionic hand. Particularly exciting are the new grip chips, coin-sized Bluetooth-enabled devices, that can be stuck ...
- Synthetic Organs: We're One Step Closer to Having Bioartificial Kidneyson August 17, 2020 at 6:00 pm
and organs on chips — such as a kidney on chip, a lung on chip, or a liver on chip." A functional bioartificial kidney could make dialysis or transplantation unnecessary for the millions of ...
via Bing News