Rice-led study shows how particles quench damaging superoxides
Injectable nanoparticles that could protect an injured person from further damage due to oxidative stress have proven to be astoundingly effective in tests to study their mechanism.
Scientists at Rice University, Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Medical School designed methods to validate their 2012 discovery that combined polyethylene glycol-hydrophilic carbon clusters — known as PEG-HCCs — could quickly stem the process of overoxidation that can cause damage in the minutes and hours after an injury.
The tests revealed a single nanoparticle can quickly catalyze the neutralization of thousands of damaging reactive oxygen species molecules that are overexpressed by the body’s cells in response to an injury and turn the molecules into oxygen. These reactive species can damage cells and cause mutations, but PEG-HCCs appear to have an enormous capacity to turn them into less-reactive substances.
The researchers hope an injection of PEG-HCCs as soon as possible after an injury, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, can mitigate further brain damage by restoring normal oxygen levels to the brain’s sensitive circulatory system.
The results were reported today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“Effectively, they bring the level of reactive oxygen species back to normal almost instantly,” said Rice chemist James Tour. “This could be a useful tool for emergency responders who need to quickly stabilize an accident or heart attack victim or to treat soldiers in the field of battle.” Tour led the new study with neurologist Thomas Kent of Baylor College of Medicine and biochemist Ah-Lim Tsai of UTHealth.
PEG-HCCs are about 3 nanometers wide and 30 to 40 nanometers long and contain from 2,000 to 5,000 carbon atoms. In tests, an individual PEG-HCC nanoparticle can catalyze the conversion of 20,000 to a million reactive oxygen species molecules per second into molecular oxygen, which damaged tissues need, and hydrogen peroxide while quenching reactive intermediates.
Tour and Kent led the earlier research that determined an infusion of nontoxic PEG-HCCs may quickly stabilize blood flow in the brain and protect against reactive oxygen species molecules overexpressed by cells during a medical trauma, especially when accompanied by massive blood loss.
Their research targeted traumatic brain injuries, after which cells release an excessive amount of the reactive oxygen species known as a superoxide into the blood. These toxic free radicals are molecules with one unpaired electron that the immune system uses to kill invading microorganisms. In small concentrations, they contribute to a cell’s normal energy regulation. Generally, they are kept in check by superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that neutralizes superoxides.
But even mild traumas can release enough superoxides to overwhelm the brain’s natural defenses. In turn, superoxides can form such other reactive oxygen species as peroxynitrite that cause further damage.
“The current research shows PEG-HCCs work catalytically, extremely rapidly and with an enormous capacity to neutralize thousands upon thousands of the deleterious molecules, particularly superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that destroy normal tissue when left unregulated,” Tour said.
“This will be important not only in traumatic brain injury and stroke treatment, but for many acute injuries of any organ or tissue and in medical procedures such as organ transplantation,” he said. “Anytime tissue is stressed and thereby oxygen-starved, superoxide can form to further attack the surrounding good tissue.”
Read more: Nano-antioxidants prove their potential
The Latest on: Nano-antioxidants
[google_news title=”” keyword=”Nano-antioxidants” num_posts=”10″ blurb_length=”0″ show_thumb=”left”]
via Google News
The Latest on: Nano-antioxidants
- NVIDIA Announces $59 Jetson Nano 2GB, A Single Board Computer With Makers In Mindon September 27, 2023 at 5:00 pm
Then came the Jetson Nano. Its 128 core Maxwell CPU still packed plenty of power and was fully compatible with NVIDIA’s CUDA architecture, but its smaller size and $99 price tag made it far more ...
- Nano Dimension (NASDAQ: NNDM)on September 27, 2023 at 2:52 am
Nano Dimension Ltd. engages in the provision of intelligent machines for the fabrication of additively manufactured electronics. Its products include DragonFly IV, AME Materials, Fabrica 2.0 ...
- Nano Pharmaceutical Market Size, Research Report 2023-2030on September 18, 2023 at 6:58 am
The Global Nano Pharmaceutical Market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2031. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the ...
- Plastic Antioxidants Market Size, Industry Report and Forecast to 2030on September 17, 2023 at 1:04 pm
The global Plastic Antioxidants market size was valued at USD 1951.78 million in 2022 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 6.15 Percentage during the forecast period, reaching USD 2792.24 ...
- Does Milk Block Antioxidants in Foods and Beverages?on September 12, 2023 at 5:00 pm
High-antioxidant foods like tea, coffee and fruit have been linked to many health benefits. Unfortunately, some studies have found that milk may block some of these beneficial compounds.
- Blueberries to beetroot; 6 antioxidant-rich foods to improve longevityon September 12, 2023 at 9:16 am
We all hear how eating foods rich in antioxidants can help us live longer and delay onset of chronic diseases apart from other benefits. Blueberries, dark chocolate, green tea, spinach and many ...
- Here's Why We Need Antioxidants: Know Food Sourceson September 12, 2023 at 7:23 am
Antioxidants are compounds that help protect our cells from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Free radicals can form through natural processes in our body and are also ...
- Nano Everyon September 10, 2023 at 5:00 pm
Drums are an exciting instrument to learn to play, but often prohibitive if there are housemates or close neighbors involved. For that problem there are still electronic drums which can be played ...
- Antioxidants stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in lung cancer tumorson August 31, 2023 at 11:19 am
Vitamin C and other antioxidants stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in lung cancer tumors, a new study from Karolinska Institutet published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation shows.
- New study shows antioxidants stimulate blood flow in tumorson August 31, 2023 at 9:01 am
Vitamin C and other antioxidants stimulate the formation of new blood vessels in lung cancer tumors, a new study from Karolinska Institutet published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows.
via Bing News